This situation predominantly affected the soil moisture and led to grassland degradation (GUIDE 1998). Periodic droughts and low, erratic rainfall makes for even more inconducive conditions. The Maldharis have lived in the Gir National Park, in the Banni Grasslands Reserve area, for the past thousand years. Most lie in the drier portions of a continent's interior. Among them, 118 are resident to Banni, 76 are resident/short migratory, and 68 are migratory. Labels. Not anymore. ‘Chhari’ means salt affected and ‘dhand’ means shallow wetland. Wild Bird Trust presents the Top 25 Migratory Wild Birds. By using this site, you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. 1957. The management interventions in Banni have been taken without any proper background studies on the economics and ecological implications. 2009). GUIDE 2004. The tree is not only responsible for increasing vegetation cover but also plays a role in sustenance of livelihood through generation of economic activities, employment, option for fodder to their livestock, raw materials for handicraft, and many more. Birding spot Kutch Kutch is the second largest district in India covering an area of 45, 612 sq. Geostationary Orbit lies on the same plane as the equator where as geosynchronous Orbit has a different inclination; Meghalayan age Prior to the invasion of Prosopis juliflora, people used to sustain themselves only from a Livestock Based Income (LBI), but now there are many livelihood and economic options generated through the P. juliflora and their income has increased manifold from Non-Livestock Based Income (NLBI). 1. reserves, Migrant birds can be especially difficult to conserve […] Migration of Livestock: This factor as a reason for grassland degradation goes together with overgrazing and increases the magnitude of the problem. The Kaziranga National Park (KNP) had been split into two divisions —the These grasslands are found on the fertile river plains of the Indo-Gangetic plain, Brahmaputra plain and rivers of central India like Narmada, Cauveri, Krishna, etc. Grass may be used for building homes and furniture (walls, thatch, matting, brooms), lawns, sports fields and as components of some cosmetics and medicines. These policy changes for Banni could lead to more efficient use of grasslands, allowing legal economic exploitation of wood lots, and incentives for sustaining sound resource management. The effect of these factors causing degradation of the Kachchh grasslands was evaluated based on interviews with residents and also through village level meetings of the stakeholders. 1998. Droughts are a recurring phenomenon. ‘Grasslands of Kachchh', in State of Environment of Kachchh (SoEK), eds. Sahapedia® is a registered trademark of Sahapedia, a non-profit organisation registered under the Societies Registration Act of 1860. All the respondents, except for the eldest one, frequently visited most parts of Banni during the dry season, for free grazing of their animals. Prep for a quiz or learn for fun! Hence, the change of the ecological status of a grassland into a woodland may also have implications on the livelihood opportunities of the people living in the region. Historically, they have been skilled livestock breeders or herders who have evolved indigenous ways of using the scarce resources of the largely uncultivable arid and semi-arid lands of Saurashtra, Kutch and North Gujarat (Mahajan et al. Popular Courses. Banni, the largest grassland of Asia, situated near the Great Rann of Kutch, is in the grip of a severe drought. Space Application Centre (SAC) ISRO, Ahmedabad. BR/NP/WS: State: Important Facts: International Biosphere Reserves: LAKE URMIA: Iran: Lake Urmia is a hypersaline lake in northwest Iran. Therefore, Amul has flourished in historically non-pastoral, non-arid and well-irrigated regions of Gujarat. For Prelims: POCSO Act provisions. 85345. PM’s exclusive interview with Times Now: Full transcript Prime Minister Narendra Modi in an interview with Times Now has shared his views on a range of issues. Grassland mapping in Gujarat using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Among the regions and clusters, in Cluster I, 41.46 per cent of the respondents had stated this as a reason for degradation, followed by Region I (41.21 per cent), Cluster II (40.67 per cent), Cluster III (39.81 per cent) and Cluster IV (34.05 per cent). Kumar, V. Vijay, P.S. The ‘Banni Grasslands’ in Kutch, Gujarat, span over 2,600 square kilometres. Banni Grasslands are known for rich wildlife,biodiversity and supports numerous animal genetic resources like Banni buffalo, Kankrej Cattle, Sheep, Goat, Camel and horse. Sixteen gram panchayats on the Banni grasslands in Bhuj district, Gujarat have approached the National Green Tribunal (NGT) over the neglecting of Community Forest Rights (CFR) of the resident Maldhari pastoral community under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006. Other than the Banni and Naliya grasslands, there are three types of grassland: Type One comprises of the grasslands on the hilly undulating area of Bhuj, Mandvi, Anjar and Mundra, spread over an area of 4,73,284.80 ha, which is 20.5 per cent of the total area of Kachchh mainland; Type Two includes the grasslands on the hilly undulating areas of Bhachau and Rapar occupying 4,35,427 ha (22.3 per cent) of the total area of Kachchh mainland; while the third important region includes the grasslands of the coastal areas of Lakhpat, Abdasa, Mandvi, Mundra, Anjar and Bhachau talukas, spreading over an area of 4,10,303.70 ha, and forming 15.46 per cent of the total area of Kachchh (Grassland Chapter 2009). 2009. Migration is primarily a strategy to optimize living conditions by moving to areas which are warmer and have more food. The total grasslands amounted to 12,233.50 ha, which is 2.41 per cent of the grassland of Kachchh (Grassland Chapter 2009). Joystu Dutta is an Assistant Professor, Dept. August 2016 . People and Livestock: Livestock being the mainstay of the Banni inhabitants, the grassland tract is widely identified as a major cattle-breeding tract of Gujarat. 4) Anupam Varma Committee, which is in news recently, related to which of the following? The policy changes could, in effect, assist in the diversification of income as one of the risk aversion strategies for pastoralists. 86323. The Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi released a book titled “The Birds of Banni Grassland” in New Delhi, today. The district is poorly endowed in terms of its land quality, as about 23,310 sq km (51 per cent) of the area is covered by saline marshy deserts (Greater and Little Ranns) situated at 230 19’ to 230 52‘ N latitude and 680 56’ to 700 32’ E longitude. Introduction of P. juliflora to stop desertification in the initial years and lack of proper silvicultural practices led to the spread of this species as a weed. It is commonly used to remove noble metals such as gold, platinum and palladium from substrates. The grazing regulations, executed through a tax locally known as Panchari, slowly disappeared after Independence and different species of livestock from other parts of the state and neighbouring states gained free entry into the area. In 1955, an area of about 2700 sq km of Banni was designated as ‘Protected Forest’ (PF) and brought under the purview of the Indian Forest Act, 1927, while the ownership remained with the Revenue Department of the Gujarat Government. A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India. 85009. The land use system of Banni is classified into five major types: grassland or grazing land, cultivated encroachment area, settlement or village area, wetland and saline land. This prevented overgrazing. Grasslands are generally open and fairly flat, and they exist on every continent except Antarctica. Environment - UPSC > Banni Grassland > Flashcards Flashcards in Banni Grassland Deck (10) Loading flashcards... 1 Where are Maldhari leaving their villages ? Dhyeya IAS® - Best UPSC IAS CSE Online Coaching | Best UPSC Coaching | Top IAS Coaching in Delhi | Top CSE Coaching, राजनीति विज्ञान एवं अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संबंध (वैकल्पिक विषय), यूपीएससी A traveller s notes: Farm Management Notes for Asia and the Far East 5. Other than the Banni and Naliya grasslands, there are three types of grassland: Type One comprises of the grasslands on the hilly undulating area of Bhuj, Mandvi, Anjar and Mundra, spread over an area of 4,73,284.80 ha, which is 20.5 per cent of the total area of Kachchh mainland; Type Two includes the grasslands on the hilly undulating areas of Bhachau and Rapar occupying 4,35,427 ha … The book was presented to the Prime Minister by the scientists of Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology (GUIDE). The region is believed to have been formed due to seismic activities and marine processes operating in the north along with fluvial deposition by the Indus and other rivers during the Vedic period. environments. 1992. Under the programme, UNESCO has established the World Network of Biosphere Reserves … Prosopis juliflora invasion: According to stakeholders, Prosopis juliflora is by far the most important reason for the degradation of the Kachchh grasslands as is evident from the table below. ‘Lost and forgotten: Grasslands and pastoralists of Gujarat,’ paper presented in the ‘Proc. Largest grassland of Asia near Rann of Kutch; known for scarce rainfall and semi drought conditions; What is the main difference between geosynchronous orbit and geostationary Orbit. It was reported that there are 6,287 families, out of which 3,492 families (56 per cent) fall below the poverty line. In the 1960s, the government wanted to protect this region from salinity ingress from the Rann of Kutch. National Agriculture Research Project, North-west Agroclimatic Zone, Gujarat Agricultural University, Sardar Krushinagar. Grassland Chapter. Kandya. ‘Local perceptions of Grassland change and priorities for conservation of natural resources in Banni (Gujarat) India.’ Frontiers of Biology in China, 4.4:549–56. While the area is known for its scarce rainfall and semi-drought conditions, it is for the first time in 13 years that the Maldharis, the nomadic natives of Banni , are leaving their villages as water gets scarce. The milking capacity and overall health of the cattle is an indicator of grassland quality (Grassland Chapter 2009). For any queries, comments, or feedback, please contact Sahapedia at contact@sahapedia.org, By using this site, you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. As mentioned earlier, Banni consists of 48 villages, regulated under 19 Panchayats (local governer’s body) under the State administration. 32 crores a year to the milk economy. 2. grassland The age group ranged from 35 to 92 years, with the average age being 64, and most respondents had lived around the animal herds all these years. MYUPSC.COM is dedicated to preparation of UPSC Civil Services and State PSC Prelims and Mains Examination 2020. we are providing here the best quality study material and Test Series for UPSC IAS Prelims and Mains Exam 2020. you can get India yearbook 2020 and State wise Current Affairs and General Knowledge Yearbook 2020. Maldharis are a tribal herdsmen community in Gujarat, India.Originally nomads, they came to be known as Maldharis after settling in Junagadh district (mainly Gir Forest). 2001. Regional Office Bangkok. The reserved vidis are managed by the Forest Department while the non-reserved vidis are given to various agencies for protection, e.g., Gaushalas and panjrapoles (trusts that maintain aged cattle), Maldhariscooperative societies, village panchayats and milk cooperatives. 1973. Presented by: Mr. Basava Uppin and Ms. Shubangi Sharma, Rau's IAS Study Circle News Covered Today: 1. 2011. During the pre-Independence era as well as up to the 1960s, Banni was a pristine grassland. During the early days the rivers, which were flowing from the Kachchh mainland to Banni, were not only depositing the detritus and maintaining the soil moisture, but also leached the salinity of the area during good rainfall years. the north-west. It is one of the highest ecosystems in the world and located at tri UPSC ACHIEVERS; CURRENT AFFAIRS IN ENGLISH. This factor, from the stakeholders’ viewpoint emerged as an important reason for the degradation of grassland in terms of forage quality. For example, the Banni and Vidi grassland of Rann of Kachch, Gujarat. Status Report, Vol. The soil too is highly saline and the arid climatic conditions do not sustain agriculture. Among the regions and clusters, Cluster I had maximum respondents stating livestock migration as the main cause (53.66 per cent) followed by Cluster IV (51.06 per cent), Region II (45.08 per cent) and Cluster II (43.07 per cent) and Region I (40.75 per cent). They feel that local villagers should be given importance while planning the sharing of benefits. 85710. As a result of deteriorating grassland potentiality, driven by a series of natural and anthropogenic drivers of change, many pastoralists, especially from the younger generation, have left their villages seeing no hope for their future in this occupation. These grasslands are encompassed by the Andes Mountains, Guiana Highlands and the famous Amazon River. Not anymore. ‘Grassland Action plan for Kachchh district, Gujarat State.’ Final report by Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology, Bhuj. Decline in Palatable Species: This is one of the secondary reasons, which is mainly influenced by drought and overgrazing. The dreary scene of dry districts is changed to that of green belts. The pre-Independence era saw a move to restrict grazing options in Banni when the then Maharao declared Banni, with its area of 2,144 sq km, as a reserve grassland (Rakhal), where only grazing by mulching cattle and buffalo was permitted, while sheep and goats were strictly prohibited. In this region three types of grassland were identified totaling 70,259.55 ha, comprising 13.84 per cent of the grasslands of Kachchh. To sustain the grassland ecosystem and intangible biodiversity of the Banni region, some special conservation measures and management options are needed. Overgrazing: Grazing is good and suitable for any rangeland to increase its productivity but overgrazing is harmful and often suicidal for any land. Dave, Sanjay and Utkantha Dholakia, eds. The traditional pastoral castes include Rabari, Bharwad, Charan, Jat, Mutva and others. The Birds of Banni Grassland is book based on environment and consists of a compilation of the research work, relating to more than 250 species of birds found in the Banni area of Kutch, Gujarat. April 2016 PDF. Water scarcity 3 Where is the Banni Grassland ? This clearly emphasizes that overgrazing is one of the main causes for the degradation of the grasslands of Kachchh. 2008). 686. On the whole 46.09 per cent of the respondents had attributed this to be of high severity. Agalega Project (0:46) 2. Banni Grasslands. Ecorestoration of Banni Grassland. Salinity: Banni suffers from a problem of inherent salinity. of THE FORSAKEN DRYLANDS; a symposium on some of India's most invisible people’ no. 2010. About Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology (GUIDE) The GUIDE is located at Bhuj. Three consecutive severe droughts occurred from 1985 to 1987 and another two consecutive droughts from 1995 to 1996. the damming of rivers, construction of roads along the border with Pakistan in the early 1960s, and salinity ingression from the Rann into Banni are responsible for aggravating the problem. 37–42. The Book is a compilation of the research work, relating to more than 250 species of birds found in the Banni area of Kutch, Gujarat. 86001. (Table 1): Severity of factors influencing Grassland Degradation in different Regions and Clusters based on Questionnaire Survey. The continued existence of biodiversity and the grassland ecosystem as well as the sustenance of livelihoods needs proper management of both grassland and P. juliflora in the Banni region. Banni 2 Why are they leaving Banni grasslands ? Banni Grasslands Reserve: I forms a belt of arid grassland ecosystem on the outer southern edge of the desert of the marshy salt flats of Rann of Kutch in Kutch District, Gujarat The Chari-Dhand wetland conservation reserve: It is located on the edge of arid Banni grasslands and the marshy salt flats of the Rann of Kutch in Kutch District, Gujarat State in India August 2016 PDF-Content. While the area is known for its scarce rainfall and semi-drought conditions, it is for the first time in 13 years that the Maldharis, the nomadic natives of Banni, are leaving their villages as … These virtues of Banni have always attracted scientists, sociologists, naturalists and tourists. Most animal husbandry schemes in the post-Independence era promoted the Amul pattern of dairy development, which is linked to sedentary livestock-keeping and assured milk supplies. It is the oldest tournament in Asia and third oldest in the world after Football Association Cup of England and Scotland Football Association Cup. Overall, 90.48 per cent of the respondents had identified the P. juliflora invasion as the major cause of degradation. News 3: PM releases a book titled “The Birds of Banni Grassland” Prime Minister Narendra Modi released a book titled “The Birds of Banni Grassland” in New Delhi. In Kachchh, a total of 68.19 per cent of the respondents stated this to be a primary cause. In Kachchh, three types of grasslands were identified: the most dominant type was Open Grasslands, which also included grass with sparse to very sparse Prosposis juliflora, spreading over 3,85,259.98 ha, forming 75.88 per cent of the total grasslands; the second dominant category was the Grass under Tree extending to 65,632.69 ha, which formed 12.93 per cent; and the third category identified was the Good Grass with an area of 56,839.62 ha, which formed only 11.19 per cent of the total grassland of Kachchh. Major land use changes introduced in the colonial and post-colonial periods led to a gross reduction in traditional grazing resources. Grasslands are known by many names, such as the Prairies in North America, the Pampas in South America, Steppes in Central Eurasia and the Savannas in Africa. Ecological, economic and sociological role of the important natural resources for beings. 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