A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker. During all those years, a great number of Brithish settlers arrive so the English language gain relevance. The industrial and scientific advances of the Industrial Revolution created a need for neologisms to describe the new creations and discoveries. No events or timespans yet. A Timeline of Modern English History . Many Spanish words also made their way into American English during the expansion and settlement of the Spanish-influenced American West, including words like armadillo, alligator, canyon, cannibal, guitar, mosquito, mustang, ranch, rodeo, stampede, tobacco, tornado and vigilante (some of which were also originally derived from native languages). We refer to the years 1500-1700 as the Early Modern English period (EModE). Britain cut off from continental Europe by English Channel. Familiar words like buddy for brother, palaver for trouble, and pikni for child, arose out of these creoles, and words like barbecue, savvy, nitty-gritty, hammock, hurricane, savannah, canoe, cannibal, potato, tobacco and maize were also early introductions into English from the Caribbean, often via Spanish or Portuguese. Variations of English creoles gradually mixed with other creole forms based on French, Spanish and Portuguese, leading to a diverse range of English varieties throughout the Caribbean islands, as well as adjacent areas of Central and South America. Event(s) Old English - 400 - 1150 AD. railway, horsepower, typewriter, cityscape, airplane, etc). Public timelines ; Search; Sign in; Sign up; LATE MODERN ENGLISH (1800-PRESENT) Timeline created by cesarramos. Period: 1906 to 1920. The 20th Century was, among other things, a century of world wars, technological transformation, and globalization, and each has provided a source of new additions to the lexicon. Although words like oxygen, protein, nuclear and vaccine did not exist in the classical languages, they could be (and were) created from Latin and Greek roots. Some words needed to describe the Native American lifestyle were also accepted (e.g. New words were also needed for some geographical features which had no obvious English parallel in the limited experience of the settlers (e.g. For more literature on Late Modern English please consult the relevant section of the Reference Guide. Modern English is conventionally defined as the English language since about 1450 or 1500. 4.5 / 5 based on 4 ratings? This is a timeline of English history, ... Battle of Agincourt was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War that occurred on Saint Crispin's Day, near modern-day Azincourt, in northern France. The “Plain English” movement, which emphased clarity, brevity and the avoidance of technical language, was bolstered by Sir Ernest Gowers’ “The Complete Plain Words”, published in the early 1950s, and the trend towards plainer language, appropriate to the target audience, continued in official and legal communications, and was followed by a similar movement in the United Sates during the 1970s. In our faddy, disposable, Internet-informed, digital age, there are even word trends that appear to be custom-designed to be short-lived and epehemeral, words and phrases that are considered no longer trendy once they reach anything close to mainstream usage. For many Americans, like Webster, taking ownership of the language and developing what would become known as American Standard English was seen as a matter of honour (honor) for the newly independent nation. Early Modern English occurred roughly between the late 1400's to the late 1700's. The settlement of America served as the route of introduction for many Native American words into the English language. Although English was always - and remains - a minority language, spoken by less than 10% of South Africans, Afrikaans was seen by the 80% black majority as the language of authority and repression (the word apartheid, in addition to trek, remains South Africa's best known contribution to the English lexicon), and English represented for them a means of achieving an international voice. Although supplements were issued in 1933 and 1972-6, it was not revised or added to until 1989, when the current (second) edition was published, listing over 615,000 words in 20 huge volumes, officially the world’s largest dictionary. Canadian English today contains elements of British English and American English in its vocabulary (it also uses a kind of hybrid of American and British spelling), as well several distinctive “Canadianisms” (like hoser, hydro, chesterfield, etc, and the ubiquitous eh? In History. By the 19th century, the British Empire was going through an era of significant change, which had a great impact on the language. squash is from the native quonterquash or asquutasquash, depending on the region; racoon is from raugraughcun or rahaugcum; hickory is from pawcohiccora; etc). These words are the result of two historical factors. It is now normal to divide the time since the end of the Middle English period into the Early Modern English period (1500-1700) and the Late Modern English period (1700-1900). He contributed large sums of money towards the Simplified Spelling Board, which resulted in the American adoption of the simpler spellings of words such as ax, judgment, catalog, program, etc. c.5000 BC. By the late 18th century the British Empire had facilitated the spread of Modern English through its colonies and geopolitical dominance. 1487 Rebellion of Lambert Simnel. The history of en English start 1828. Leading the first American commercial radio station in Pittsburgh. Les événements importants avant le 18e siècle au Canada l Groupe 321 l Melika Ostadi et Gabriel M... Time line #4 - Higher Education in the 20th Century - 1930 - 1960, Povijesni razvoj računala (Lana Hranjec, 1.e), Hadiatou et Sandy(321): Ligne du temps récapitulative, Antecedentes del Derecho Colectivo en el Trabajo, The Evolution of Media in The Philippines. Its vocabulary has been influenced by loanwords from the native peoples of the north (e.g. Who reigned when? , barrage, boondocks, roadblock, snafu, boffin, brainwashing, spearhead, etc, are all military terms which have made their way into standard English during the World Wars. In many cases, the original indigenous words were very difficult to render in English, and have often been mangled almost beyond recognition (e.g. But some truly revolutionary works were just around the corner in the early 20th Century, from Virginia Woolf to T.S. The words be, strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. The German “Iron Chancellor” Otto van Bismarck would later ruefully remark that “the most significant event of the 20th Century will be the fact that the North Americans speak English”. Late 5c onwards England divides roughly into seven kingdoms which reflect the tribes occupying the relevant areas. Stretching from the late 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, Modernism reached its peak in the 1960s; Post-modernism describes … The scholarly study of American dialects began. raccoon, opossum, moose, chipmunk, skunk, tomato, squash, hickory, etc). A single sentence from “Finnegan’s Wake” (1939) may suffice to give a taste of the extent of Joyce’s neologistic rampage: In the late 19th Century, the Scottish lexicographer James Murray was given the job of compiling a “New English Dictionary on Historical Principles”. Period: 1906 to 1920. Many new words and slang expressions were also introduced from the military. The rise of so-called “New Englishes” (modern variants or dialects of the language, such as Australian English, South African English, Caribbean English, South Asian English, etc) raised, for some, the spectre of the possible fragmentation of the English language into mutually unintelligible languages, much as occurred when Latin gave rise to the various Romance languages (French, Spanish, Italian, etc) centuries ago. Over time, the convicts who had served out their time became citizens of the emerging country, and became euphemistically known as “government men”, “legitimates”, “exiles” or “empire builders”. A timeline created with Timetoast's interactive timeline maker. The period is marked by standardisation as a result of the printing press , renewed Latin influence during the Renaissance and the ongoing process of the Great Vowel Shift . However, in retrospect, this does not seem to have happened and, in the age of instantaneous global communication, it now seems ever less likely to occur in the future. Noah the Webster´s American Dictionary of English Language was published. Six modern East African states with a history of 19th Century British imperial rule (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe), gave English official language status on achieving independence in the 1960s. Most of the innovations of the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th Century were of British origin, including the harnessing of steam to drive heavy machinery, the development of new materials, techniques and equipment in a range of manufacturing industries, and the emergence of new means of transportation (e.g. Brer Lion bin a hunt) or left out completely (e.g. 1509 End of Henry VII's reign – Begin reign of Henry VIII. The Dutch had been in South Africa since the 1650s, but the wave of British settlers soon began to anglicize the Afrikaans (Dutch) and black population. At the same time, regional accents were further denigrated and marginalized. steamships, railways). big big) are often used as intensifiers, although not in this particular passage. New Zealand was keen to emphasize its national identity (and particularly its differences from neighbouring Australia), and this influenced its own version of English, as did the incorporation of native Maori words into the language. However, since the Second World War, a greater permissiveness towards regional English varieties has taken hold in England, both in education and in the media. 1485 Beginning of Tudor Dynasty, Henry VII assumes the throne Central Royal authority was strengthened and private feudal armies suppressed. The principal distinction between early- and late-modern English is vocabulary. Australian speech and usage). c.500 BC. In some walks of life, bad, sick, dope and wicked are all now different varieties of good. Is tan English translation of the Christian Bible by the Church of England. For instance, Australia gave us a set of words (not particularly useful outside the context of Australia itself) like boomerang, kangaroo, budgerigar, etc. Public timelines ; Search; Sign in; Sign up; LATE MODERN ENGLISH (1800-PRESENT) Timeline created by cesarramos. But, more than anything, the speech of the Loyalists arriving in southern Ontario from states like Pennsylvania and New York, formed the basis of Canadian speech and its accent (including the distinctive pronunciation of the “ou” in words like house and out, and the “i” in words like light). The first is the Industrial Revolution and the rise of the technological society. Due to the deliberate practice of shipping slaves of different language backgrounds together (in an attempt to avoid plots and rebellions), the captives developed their own English-based pidgin language, which they used to communicate with the largely English-speaking sailors and landowners, and also between themselves. 1514 Beginning wars with France and Scotland. 1485 Beginning of Tudor Dynasty, Henry VII assumes the throne Central Royal authority was strengthened and private feudal armies suppressed. the spelling of theater and center instead of theatre and centre) and many others may well have happened anyway. It lasted until 1820 It lasted until 1820 1,805 BCE In 1961, South Africa became the only country ever to set up an official Academy to promote the English language. President Theodore Roosevelt agreed to use these spellings for all federal publications and they quickly caught on, although there was still stiff resistance to such recommended changes as tuf, def, troble, yu, filosofy, etc. English was made the official language in 1822 and, as in Australia, a distinctive homogeneous accent developed over time, drawing from the various different groups of settlers. Late Modern English At the beginning of the 16th century, the British Empire started its process of expansion, reaching its height between the 18th and 20th centuries. All the events are represented on the interactive timeline and can be visualized. Later, the Internet it gave rise to (the word Internet itself is derived form Latin, as are audio, video, quantum, etc) generated its own set of neologisms (e.g. It was the War of 1812 against the Americans, as much as Confederation and independence from Britain in 1867, that definitively cemented the separate identity of English Canada. online, noob, flamer, spam, phishing, larping, whitelist, download, blog, vblog, blogosphere, emoticon, podcast, warez, trolling, hashtag, wifi, bitcoin, selfie, etc). In 1917, Daniel Jones introduced the concept of Received Pronunciation (sometimes called the Queen’s English, BBC English or Public School English) to describe the variety of Standard English spoken by the educated middle and upper classes, irrespective of what part of England they may live in. Late Modern English - 1700 AD - present day Modern Canadian English tends to show very little regional diversity in pronunciation, even compared to the United States, the Irish-tinged dialect of Newfoundland being far and away the most distinctive dialect. For a timeline of events from 1945 to 2000, see Timeline of the 20th century § 1945 Late Modern English (1800-Present) The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary. One such peak for the English language was the Early Modern period of the 16th to 18th Century, a period sometimes referred to as the Golden Age of English Literature (other peaks include the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th Century, and the computer and digital age of the late 20th Century, which is still continuing today). Historical events, in turn, shape the changes that occur in a language over time. The colonization of Canada proceeded quite separately from that of America. The resulting stripped-down language may be crude but it is usually serviceable and efficient. “deef” for deaf, “booty” for beauty, “nater” for nature, etc), although he was responsible for the current American pronunciations of words like schedule and lieutenant. The early 19th century language of Jane Austen appears to all intents and purposes to be quite modern in vocabulary, grammar and style, but it hides some subtle distinctions in meaning which have since been lost (e.g. Page 16 of 22 V. Late Modern English - 1800-Present One clear distinction that becomes immediately obvious as one compares early-modern English and late-modern English is the huge increase in vocabulary as one moves from the former to the latter. To a large extent, this relied on the classical languages, Latin and Greek, in which scholars and scientists of the period were usually well versed. Language is a large part of our everyday lives and shapes our experience of the world. To Austen, and other writers of her generation, correct grammar and style (i.e. A Timeline of Modern English History . Brer Lion stonish). A timeline of all the kings and queens of England from the Anglo-Saxon period to the present. As an interesting aside, in 1941, when Sir Winston Churchill wanted to plumb the depths of the English soul at a particularly crucial and difficult time in the Second World War, almost all of the words in the main part of his famous speech ("we shall fight on the beaches... we shall never surrender") were of Anglo-Saxon origin, with the significant exception of surrender (a French loanword). the word verbify is itself a prime example; others include to thumb, to parrot, to email, to text, to google, to medal, to critique, to leverage, to sequence, to interface, to tase, to speechify, to incentivize, etc), although some modern-sounding verbs have surprisingly been in the language for centuries (e.g. Jamaican creole (known locally as “Patwa”, for patois) was one of the deepest in the Caribbean, partly because of the sheer numbers transported there, and the accent there is still so thick as to be almost undecipherable. Chortle and galumph are two words from the poem that made the jump to everyday English, but the work is jam-packed with nonsense words as may be seen from its first few lines: “Twas brillig, and the slithy toves / Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: / All mimsy were the borogoves, / And the mome raths outgrabe”). English Literature through time. The most recent stage in the evolution of the language is commonly called Present-Day English (PDE). At least half of the influential scientific and technological output between 1750 and 1900 was written in English. John Adams’ much-vaunted “plain English” took a back seat in the hands of colourful characters like Davy Crockett (who was himself of Scots-Irish decent) and others, who saw western expansion as an excuse to expand the language with new words and quirky Americanisms like skedaddle, bamboozle, shebang, riff-raff, hunky-dory, lickety-split, rambunctious, ripsnorter, humdinger, doozy, shenanigan, discombobulate, absquatulate, splendiferous, etc, not to mention evocative phrases like fly off the handle, a chip on the shoulder, no axe to grind, sitting on the fence, dodge the issue, knuckle down, make the fur fly, go the whole hog, kick the bucket, face the music, bite the dust, barking up the wrong tree, pass the buck, stack the deck, poker face, in cahoots, pull up stakes, horse sense, two cents’ worth, stake a claim, strike it rich, the real McCoy and even the phrase stiff upper lip (in regard to their more hidebound British cousins). During the Early Modern English period (1500 - 1800) the Great Vowel Shift occurred. A pidgin is a reduced language that results from extended contact between people with no language in common. Modern Britain timeline 1945-2000 Here is a timeline for modern Britain, from 1945, the end of the Second World War and Atlee's Labour Government, through Thatcher's years, to the year 2000. Examples might be bae, on fleek, YOLO (you only live once), fanute, etc. Late Modern English. Mddle English - 1150 - 1450 AD . Today, some 4,000 words are used differently in the USA and Britain (lift/elevator, tap/faucet, bath/tub, curtains/drapes, biscuit/cookie and boot/trunk are just some of the better known ones) and, increasingly, American usage is driving out traditional words and phrases back in Britain (e.g. In the second half of the 19th Century, in particular, over 30 million poured into the country from all parts of the world. To a lesser extent, French words, from the French presence in the Louisiana area and in Canada, contributed loanwords like gopher, prairie, depot, cache, cent and dime, as well as French-derived place names like Detroit, Illinois, Des Moines, etc. Public timelines ; Search; Sign in; Sign up; Late Modern English Timeline created by gustavowouters. The works of William Shakespeare and the King James Bible are considered to be in Modern English, or more specifically, are referred to as using Early Modern English or Elizabethan English. There had been British, French and Portuguese expeditions to the east coast of Canada even before the end of the 15th Century, but the first permanent European settlement was by France in 1608. Lens, refraction, electron, chromosome, chloroform, caffeine, centigrade, bacteria, chronometer and claustrophobia are just a few of the other science-based words that were created during this period of scientific innovation, along with a whole host of “-ologies” and “-onomies”, like biology, petrology, morphology, histology, palaeontology, ethnology, entomology, taxonomy, etc. Although the pronunciation and grammar of Early Modern English continued into the late modern age, the vocabulary of Englishgrew considerably, leading to the creation of Late Modern English. But such reforms were fiercely criticized in Britain, and even in America a so-called "Dictionary War" ensued between supporters of Webster's Americanism and the more conservative British-influenced approach of Joseph Worcester and others. English literature - English literature - The early Middle English period: The Norman Conquest worked no immediate transformation on either the language or the literature of the English. From the deliberately misspelled and dialectical works of Artemus Ward and Josh Billings to popular novels like Harriet Beecher Stowe's “Uncle Tom's Cabin” (1852) and Mark Twain's “Huckleberry Finn” (1884), this American vernacular spread rapidly, and became in the process more publicly acceptable both in everyday speech and in literature. It was taken very much for granted by the British colonial mentality of the time that extending the English language and culture to the undeveloped and backward countries of Africa and Asia was a desirable thing. cobber, digger, pom, dinkum, walkabout, tucker, dunny). "Nounification" also occurs, particularly in business contexts (e.g. At the peak of immigration, from 1901 to 1905, America absorbed a million Italians, a million Austro-Hungarians, half a million Russians and tens of thousands each from many other countries. 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