Missouri's Confederate: Claiborne Fox Jackson and the Creation of Southern Identity in the Border West. "[10] Price and his generals stuck firmly to this cautious strategy, and similar to General Joseph E. Johnston's retreat toward Atlanta, Price's Missouri State Guard fell back hundreds of miles in the face of a superior force. Mustered in the late spring of 1862. The Democrats returned to being the dominant power in the state by 1873 through an alliance with returned ex-Confederates, almost all of whom had been part of the pro-slavery anti-Benton wing of the Missouri Democratic Party prior to the Civil War. After seceding from the Union, many Confederate states adopted state flags. In the future, these records will be made available at no charge through the National Archives web site. [14], The Western Sanitary Commission was a private agency based in St. Louis and a rival of the larger U.S. Sanitary Commission. As protesters call to remove Confederate statues and symbols across the nation, a new study finds that Missouri has been one of the most responsive states to their demands in recent years. The Federal Government reinforced the Arsenal's tiny garrison with several detachments, most notably a force from the 2nd Infantry under Captain Nathaniel Lyon. The four border states in the American Civil War, The Great Tours: England, Scotland, and Wales, the myths and half-truths about American history, Slavery, Compromise, and the Long Road to War. The Compiled Service Records ($) (Fold3.com) of Confederate soldiers who served in organizations from the state of Missouri are available online. Missourians were outraged by the bloodshed in St. Louis and Confederate sentiment spread throughout the state. Less than half the state's population was listed as native-born (475,246, or 40%). Control Missouri Campaign – June-October 1861 – Missouri, like the three other “border states” of Delaware, Maryland, and Kentucky, was deemed critical to the Lincoln Administration due to its geographical position and questionable loyalty to the North because it was a “slavery state.” At the outbreak of the Civil War, Major General John C. Fremont was appointed to lead the Western … The ex-Confederate/Democratic resurgence also defeated efforts to empower Missouri's African-American population, and ushered in the state's version of Jim Crow legislation. Rating Required. This took him through the relatively friendly country of the "Boonslick", which had provided a large percentage of the Missouri volunteers who had joined the CSA. St. Louis river salvage expert and engineering genius James Buchanan Eads[12] won a contract to build a fleet of shallow-draft ironclads for use on the western rivers. The Confederates lost 1,200 men. One of the persons arrested was John Merriman, who appealed for his release under a writ of habeas corpus. St. Louis' Benton Barracks became the mustering depot for western troops, and in February 1862, Department of Missouri commander Henry Halleck approved a joint invasion of west Tennessee along the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. The violence along the Kansas–Missouri border foreshadowed the national violence to come, and indeed continued throughout the Civil War. Assigned to General Shelby's Brigade, Trans-Mississippi … We have accounts of it flying in a number of battles, including Carthage and Wilson’s Creek, and elsewhere. "[11] Lincoln, fearing the emancipation would enrage neutral Missourians and slave states in Union control, granted Governor Gamble's request to rescind the emancipation and ease martial law. read more "[17] While Jayhawker violence alienated communities that otherwise might have been loyal supporters of the Union, marauding bands of pro-secession bushwhackers sustained guerrilla violence and outright banditry, especially in Missouri's northern counties. The order applied to farmers regardless of loyalty, although those who could prove their loyalty to the Union could stay in designated towns and those who could not were exiled entirely. The next highest categories were "Laborers" (30,668), "Blacksmiths" (4,349), and "Merchants" (4,245). United States presidential election of 1860, List of Missouri Confederate Civil War units, Missouri Secretary of State, "Abstract of Wars & Military Engagements: War of 1812 through World War I", "Civil War Archives - Missouri - Union Regimental Index", The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, "From Jefferson City: Special Dispatch to the Republican", American Civil War Research Database Status, A Few Fascinating Missouri Civil War Facts, Divided State: Missouri Military Organizations in the Civil War, Missouri Civil War Battles, Skirmishes, & Engagements, Missouri Civil War Union Militia Organizations, National Park Service map of Civil War sites in Missouri, The Civil War in Missouri: a Selected, Annotated Bibliography, The Civil War, Slavery and Reconstruction in Missouri, List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials, List of memorials to the Grand Army of the Republic, List of Confederate monuments and memorials, Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials. In this case, notionally pro-Union "Bald Knobbers" were (supposedly) resisting the political resurgence of formerly pro-secessionist "anti-Bald Knobbers". These maneuvers were perceived by Lyon as an attempt to seize the arsenal. The compiled service records consist of an envelope containing card … Union forces suffered over 1,300 casualties, including Lyon, who was fatally shot. Civilians got caught up in it; whole counties were de-populated which was a bitter situation, but the state remained in the Union which was safe for Lincoln. In the United States presidential election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln received only 10 percent of Missouri's votes, while 71 percent favored either John Bell or Stephen A. Douglas, both of whom wanted to maintain the status quo. Lyon, meanwhile, was made a Brigadier General: a hero to many strong Unionists in Missouri and people in the North. After Price's return south, the issue of looting and murder during "independent scouting" would become a major embarrassment during the court martial inquest into the failure of Price's Missouri Expedition. Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U.S. Confederate States presidential election of 1861, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Missouri_in_the_American_Civil_War&oldid=999252379, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Boman, Dennis K. "All Politics Are Local: Emancipation in Missouri," in, Fitzsimmons, Margaret Louise. Lyon refused, and stated that if Jackson insisted on so limiting the power of the federal government, "This means war". The Missouri State Legislature passed the "Military Bill" on May 11, 1861, in direct response to the Camp Jackson Affair in St. Louis the previous day. It operated during the war to help the U.S. Army deal with sick and wounded soldiers. As the Civil War began, many leading citizens were hoping the state could remain neutral in the growing conflict. These resources can help scholars, students, and family historians to explore the war and its aftermath. Counting minor actions and skirmishes, Missouri saw more than 1,200 distinct engagements within its boundaries; only Virginia and Tennessee exceeded this total. Of the greatest concern for Missouri slave-holders in the years before the war was a federal law that decreed that if a slave physically entered a free state, the slave became free. John C. Frémont replaced Lyon as commander of the Department of the West. CAPE GIRARDEAU, Mo. Confederate Records [edit | edit source] Service Records [edit | edit source]. Create New Wish List; Description "Missouri Confederate State flag Lapel Pin" × Related Products; Customers Also Viewed; Quick view Add to Cart. He suspended the writ of habeas corpus in parts of the state, which meant that citizens didn’t have to be told why they were being held. The state of Maryland was divided between the anti-Confederacy and pro-Confederate sympathizers. Price was reportedly so impressed by Mulligan's demeanor and conduct during and after the battle that he offered him his own horse and buggy, and ordered him safely escorted to Union lines. Lincoln acted decisively to keep Maryland in the Union. The immediate post-war state government was controlled by Republicans, who attempted to execute an "internal reconstruction", banning politically powerful former secessionists from the political process and empowering the state's newly emancipated African-American population. A party of rebels recently stated that Lincoln had been hanged by Beauregard, and that for weeks past the National Congress had been held in Philadelphia. The 12th Confederate State Missouri’s Provisional Union Government Post War Politics. The state was opposed to secession and to the Confederacy, but Baltimore was a hotbed of pro-Confederate sympathy. In addition, the vigilante activities of the Bald Knobbers in southwest Missouri during the 1880s have been interpreted by some as a continuation of Civil War-related guerrilla warfare. By November, the military situation in Missouri was stable and firmly in the Union. ... Missouri, when 10 Confederate prisoners were shot in retaliation for the abduction of a local Union sympathizer. Missouri was pulled apart by guerrilla fighting during the course of the Civil War. The Federals attempted to retard Price's advance through both minor and substantial skirmishing such as at Glasgow and Lexington. It did, however, exceed the Confiscation Act of 1861 which only allowed the United States to claim ownership of the slave if the slave was proven to "work or to be employed in or upon any fort, navy-yard, dock, armory, ship, entrenchment, or in any military or naval service whatsoever, against the Government and lawful authority of the United States. A combined force of over 12,000 Confederate soldiers, Arkansas State Troops, and Missouri State Guardsmen under Confederate Brigadier Benjamin McCulloch fought approximately 5,400 Federals in a punishing six-hour battle. Nevertheless, the Missouri State Guard, under the command of Jackson, successfully routed the Union force under the command of Colonel Franz Sigel at Carthage on July 5, 1861. By the end of the war in 1865, nearly 110,000 Missourians had served in the Union Army and at least 30,000 in the Confederate Army; many had also fought with bands of pro–Confederate partisans known as "bushwhackers". Built at Eads' own Union Marine Works in the St. Louis suburb of Carondelet and at a satellite yard in Cairo, Illinois, the seven City-class ironclads,[13] Essex, and the heavy ironclad Benton were the first U.S. ironclads and the first to see combat. Major General John Pope, who oversaw northern Missouri, blamed local citizens for not doing enough to put down bushwhacker guerrillas and ordered locals to raise militias to counter them. Ironically, although Price had issued orders against pillage, many of the pro-Confederate civilians in this area (which would be known as "Little Dixie" after the war) suffered from looting and depredations at the hands of Price's men.[18]. At first appearance the Camp Jackson Massacre was exactly the moment Governor Claiborne Jackson had been waiting for. Reviews (660) 584-5134 Website. Many young men left home and joined guerrilla type bands of Confederate raiders, the most famous of these being Quantrill's raiders, who were Confederate supporters. Jackson campaigned as a Douglas Democrat, favoring a conciliatory program on issues that divided the country. The site was once home to the Confederate Soldiers Home of Missouri, which provided comfort and refuge to 1,600 Civil War veterans and their families for nearly 60 years. Yet, Missouri is marginalized in Civil War history, and its war continues to Missouri was in the Union but like Kentucky, it also remained a divided state. Menu & Reservations Make Reservations . This practice led some Missouri units to be mislabeled as Arkansas units when Confederate service records were compil… Subsequent Confederate military action in the state would be limited to a few large raids (notably Shelby's Raid of 1863 and Price's Missouri Expedition of 1864), and partial endorsement of the activities of Missouri guerrillas. It was supported by private fundraising in the city of St. Louis, as well as from donors in California and New England. An unusually cooperative relationship between Army officials, who would own the vessels, and Navy officers, who would command them, helped speed the work. ", Potter, Marguerite. Through the resources available on Missouri Digital Heritage, you can travel back to the first stirrings of rebellion, learn how slaves fought for their freedom, and explore how Missouri families rebuilt their communities. 11 which forced all residents of the rural areas of four counties (Jackson, Cass, Bates and Vernon) south of the Missouri River on the Kansas border to leave their property, which was then burned. Comments Required. Rosecrans, "Annual Report of the Western Sanitary Commission for the Years Ending July, 1862, and July, 1863"; "Circular of Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair, to Be Held in St. Louis, May 17th, 1864". When Jackson died in office in 1862, his lieutenant governor, Thomas Caute Reynolds, succeeded him. Geiger, Mark W. Financial Fraud and Guerrilla Violence in Missouri's Civil War, 1861–1865. It was a war with no rules. The United States capital would be in the Confederacy if Maryland left the Union. The soldiers returned the fire. Learn more about the myths and half-truths about American history. The battle marked the first time that the Missouri State Guard fought alongside Confederate forces. Fold3. 21,000 guns were secretly evacuated to Alton, Illinois on the evening of April 29, 1861. The capital was to eventually move to Marshall, Texas. The other federal arsenal in Missouri, Liberty Arsenal, had been captured on April 20 by secessionist militias and, concerned by widespread reports that Governor Jackson intended to use the Missouri Volunteer Militia to also attack the St. Louis Arsenal and capture its 39,000 small arms, Secretary of War Simon Cameron ordered Lyon (by that time in acting command) to evacuate the majority of the munitions out of the state. Clayburn Jackson seceded from the Union, declaring they would cast their lot with the Confederacy. Implementation of the truce fell prey, however, to the growing conflict. Civilians on all sides faced looting, violence and other depredations. Price made his way to the extreme western portion of the state, taking part in a series of bitter battles at the Little Blue, Independence, and Byram's Ford. Review Subject Required. Among the most notorious bushwhackers were William C. Quantrill's raiders, Silas M. Gordon, William "Bloody Bill" Anderson, and a young Jesse James. Price's Confederates retreated through Kansas and Indian Territory into Arkansas, where they stayed for the remainder of the war. The Union response in Missouri was to organize a state convention, which declared the state government to be deposed, and organized a provisional state government. Against the background of Bleeding Kansas, the case of Dred Scott, a slave who in 1846 had sued for his family's freedom in St. Louis, reached the U.S. Supreme Court. During the American Civil War, Missouri was a hotly contested border state populated by both Union and Confederate sympathizers. The result was a de facto war between pro-slavery residents of Missouri, called "Border Ruffians", and anti-slavery "Free-Staters" of Kansas, each of which sought to influence how Kansas entered the Union. This violence may have had more to do with struggles for local power by group and family alliances than with war-time politics. He became a millionaire before the war by salvaging river wrecks and cargoes with a fleet of specially designed salvage vessels and a diving bell. Reports are rife in Western Missouri that the Southern Confederacy has been recognized by England and France, and that before the last of October the blockade will be broken by the navies of both nations. It served as a home for Civil War veterans In 1863, following the Lawrence Massacre in Kansas, Union General Thomas Ewing, Jr. accused farmers in rural Missouri of either instigating the massacre or supporting it. They soon retreated from the state and headed for Arkansas and later Mississippi. The defeat of the Confederate army under Earl Van Dorn, Benjamin McCulloch, and Price in northwestern Arkansas at the Battle of Pea Ridge further discouraged the Confederate leadership as to the wisdom, or possibility, of occupying Missouri. Small remnants of the Missouri Guard remained in the state and fought isolated battles throughout the war. SKU: LAPELPIN-12 UPC: Current Stock: Quantity: Decrease Quantity: Increase Quantity: Add to Wish List. The Underground Railroad, in which slaves gained their freedom by heading north, was already becoming established in the state. The reunified Democratic Party exploited themes of racial prejudice and their own version of the South's "Lost Cause", which portrayed Missourians as victims of Federal tyranny and outrages, and depicted Missouri Unionists and Republicans as traitors to the state and criminals. In addition to serving in Confederate units organized in Arkansas, many Arkansas soldiers would serve in Confederate units organized in Missouri. Phillips, Christopher. ", Saeger, Andrew M. "The Kingdom Of Callaway: Callaway County, Missouri during the Civil War." The conflict involved attacks and murders of supporters on both sides, with the Sacking of Lawrence by pro-slavery forces and the Pottawatomie massacre led by abolitionist John Brown the most notable. After the subsequent Battle of Shiloh, the Federal Army pushed into northern Mississippi, while the Gunboat fleet moved down the Mississippi with cooperating Federal troops, systematically capturing every Confederate position north of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Deploying wet hemp bales as mobile breastworks, the rebel advance was shielded from fire, including heated shot. On May 10, violence broke out when Captain Nathaniel Lyon, a firebrand, aggressive anti-Southern man, led Unionist troops against pro-Southern militiamen at Camp Jackson, near St. Louis, and compelled them to surrender. These hopes were encompassed in the so-called Price–Harney Truce of May 21, 1861. Learn more about the Kentucky Campaign of 1862. The largest battle in the campaign to evict Jackson was the Battle of Wilson's Creek near Springfield, Missouri, on August 10, 1861. On May 10, 1861, Lyon attacked the militia and paraded them as captives through the streets of St. Louis. 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