With the fibers a potting medium is manufactured. It has been utilized as a green manure, livestock feed and as a non-wood fiber crop. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, 31(1), 51-61. After measuring the amounts of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in the soils, it was discovered that Crotalaria juncea along with only half the usual dose of goat manure produced the best results. The fibre is made into cordage, fishing nets, sacking fabrics, canvas, and rug yarns and is used to manufacture such paper products as cigarette and tissue papers. How Sunhemp is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. No Dry Cleaning. 95:342-345. It is generally considered to have originated in India. Seeds are used in the production of an adhesive for plywood and as a coffee-substitute. Hemp fibers are also used in automobile industry for reinforcing molded thermoplastics. The short fibers (tow) are used for manufacturing insulation products, fiber board and erosion control mats. Crotalaria juncea, known as brown hemp, Indian hemp, Madras hemp, or sunn hemp,[2][3] is a tropical Asian plant of the legume family (Fabaceae). Similarly, Crotalaria juncea can be used to improve nutrient patterns in agricultural plants. [15] There are, however, studies that have indicated that Crotalaria juncea has a high tolerance to copper concentrations in the soil and root systems which are beneficial traits for phytostabilization programs.[16]. It can reach 6 to 10 feet tall, depending on … Its stem is erect with silky hairs on the branches. It is often planted for increasing soil organic matter to over-farmed soils, for loosening subsoil, to reduce soil erosion, conserve soil water and recycle plant nutrients. It can be an invasive weed and has been listed as a noxious weed in some jurisdictions. It is a suitable indigenous raw material for manufacturing high quality tissue paper, cigarette paper and paper for currency. Fibres obtained from sunnhemp are dull white in colour, having high tensile strength. It has regained interest in the late 2000s as its fibre is reported to be more environmentally friendly than synthetic fibres, and having valuable traits for paper industries. The study of these properties is vital for comparison with similar properties of synthetic fibres and for assessing hemp fibres’ suitability for use as reinforcement in composite materials. Crotalaria juncea holds a relatively high fuel value. It is a summer legume crop with a well-developed taproot system. This is mostly due to the palatability, digestibility and alkaloid toxicity of the crop. [17] Phosphate uptake is significantly improved in the presence of AMF, which functions to effectively reduce the amount of available heavy metals. https://web.archive.org/web/20110721163337/http://assamagribusiness.nic.in/Sunnhemp.pdf, http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/GBASE/data/pf000475.htm, Crotalaria Juncea - Sunn Hemp - Grass Seed (PDF papers), Crotalaria Juncea - Sunn Hemp - Basic Information Paper, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Crotalaria_juncea&oldid=976730158, Articles needing additional references from January 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 September 2020, at 17:10. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 85(6). First, it is a source of natural fibre. Despite the high levels of copper in the soil of Crotalaria juncea, mechanisms have been determined which can reverse the toxic effects of copper and allow for growth of the plant. Sunn hemp, like hemp (Cannabis sativa), is mainly grown as a fibre crop that was much used in the traditional manufacture of ropes, strings, twines, floor mat, and fishing nets. Sunn is likely native to the Indian subcontinent, where it has been cultivated since prehistoric times. This paper presents the results of the experiments undertaken to evaluate various physical and mechanical properties of hemp fibres. Horticultura Brasileira, 25(3), 392-395. [17] This ultimately allows for the increased growth of Crotalaria juncea in spite of having been cultivated in high levels of copper. Flowers are bisexual, zygomorphic, and 5-merous. Sunn hemp is an interesting option for livestock warm season annual grazing. Along with bamboo, hemp is one of the fastest growing plants on Earth. [6] This genotype can even be used as a template for future breeding. Bract minute; bracteoles 2, below the calyx. Chem. Process optimization for the extraction of oil from Crotalaria juncea using three phase partitioning. However, a novel three-phase partitioning based extraction shows an oil yield of 37% in two hours at 37 degrees Celsius. “Hemp” refers primarily to Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), although the term has been applied to dozens of species representing at least 22 genera, often prominent fiber crops. Avoid use during Pregnant and Breast feeding. [12] Crotalaria juncea found in soils contaminated with herbicides revealed high phytoremediation capacity. Fertile flowers are followed by cylindrical hairy pod that is 3-6 cm long and 1-2 cm in diameter, short, velvety hairy and about 6–12-seeded. [14] Excessive copper levels can ultimately result in depletion of necessary nutrients. It also grow well on clay soils and will tolerate low fertility providing that soils are well-drained, Well developed, long, strong taproot with  lateral roots, and much branched and lobed nodules, up to 2.5 cm in length, Up to 2 cm in diameter, cylindrical and ribbed with short appressed hairs, Simple, elliptic to oblong, 2.5-10.5 cm long, and 6–20 mm broad, linear or oblong, obtuse or sub-acute, apiculate, pubescent on both sides, hairs appressed, silky, Bisexual, zygomorphic, 5-merous; calyx 1.5–2 cm long, covered in short brown hairs with some longer ones interspersed, lobes 3–4 times as long as the tube, cylindrical hairy pod 3-6 cm long and 1-2 cm in diameter, short, velvety hairy, 6–12-seeded, Small flattened, oblique, cordiform, 6-7 mm long, heart-shaped, grayish olive, dark grey or dark brown to black and loosened in the pod at maturity, Spermatophytina  (spermatophytes, seed plants, phanérogames). [3], It bears yellow flowers and elongate, alternate leaves.[5]. Root is used for colic and as astringent in epistaxis. It has a strong taproot and the roots have root nodules. About Us. Seeds are believed to purify the blood and are used in the treatment of impetigo and psoriasis. The seeds are believed to purify the blood and are used in the treatment of impetigo and psoriasis. [17] Phosphate has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the level of toxicity in Crotalaria juncea, resulting in promotion of plant growth. It has a long tap root and a thick, fibrous stem approximately 1 to 2 inches in diameter. Status As of 2005, Arkansas considered the genus Crotalaria as a noxious weed. To rectify this, animal manure is often used to supply agricultural crops with nutrients. Sunn hemp has bright green, simple leaves that are 3 to 5 inches long, approximately 1-inch wide, and are arranged in a spiral around the stem. Start grazing when plants are one and a half to three feet tall, approximately 45 days after planting. [11] A highly applicable method of soil remediation known as phytoremediation has been specifically shown to be effective as when used in soils contaminated with heavy metals. [10] The objective was to find the mixture between Crotalaria juncea and Napier grass that would yield the highest vegetable seedling production. Leaves are simple, about 2.5-10.5 cm long, and 6–20 mm broad, linear or oblong, obtuse or sub-acute, apiculate, pubescent on both sides, hairs appressed and silky. Another effective approach in decreasing the levels of copper in Crotalaria juncea is with the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); POLICY Industrial Crops and Products, 71, 89-96. However, the stems provide the fiber needed for proper rumen function. According to Purseglove (1968) and Dempsey (1975), most of the sunn hempcultivars have originated from selection of improved types suited to specificlocalities, rather than by breeding procedures. [10] The compost with 66% Crotalaria juncea and 33% Napier grass was superior to other combinations since this particular combination yielded the greatest production of lettuce, beet, and tomato seedlings. Terms & conditions Varieties such as Futura 75, Futura 77, and Fanola have had some validation for Nebraska conditions. Vexillum ovate-oblong, slightly exserted. Utilization of organic compost as substrate for vegetable seedling production. The Many Uses of Sunn Hemp. Stipules are almost absent. Corolla bright yellow. A crop grown specifically for fibre will generally produce a higher quality product than a dual-use crop. Cultivated soil high in copper levels has proven to be effective in increasing the growth of Crotalaria juncea. Inflorescence an erect terminal and lateral raceme, up to 30 cm long, 12–20-flowered. Seeds of many Crotalaria species contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. 70(4):737-744. It is recorded in many countries across the African continent from the Atlantic coast to the Red Sea, from Tunisia to South Africa and in the Indian Ocean islands, Brown hemp, Bumpo, Ghore sun, Indian hemp, Janumu, Madras hemp, Oohawaimaton, San, Sana, Sanabu, Sanai, Sanal, Sann hemp, Sannai sunn, Sannappu, Saun, Senabina soppu, Shon, Shonpat, Sunn hemp, Tag, Tum-thang, Wuckoo nar, Benares hemp, Bengal hemp, Bombay hemp, Brown hemp, Jubbalpore hemp, Sun hemp, Sann hermp, sunn Crotalaria, Cascavelle, Cocosnut, Grand Sonnette, Grand Tcha-Tcha, Sonnette, Multipurpose,  short-day, annual, erect shrubby, tropical and subtropical legume, Scrub jungles, Dry deciduous forests, Sparse forests, along trails, Grows best on fairly light textured soil like sandy loam or loam of at least moderate fertility. [10], Although reported to contain antinutritional factors such as alkaloids, sunn hemp is grown for fodder to feed cattle, mainly in India.[2]. [8] Crotalaria juncea, reduced both the germination and seedlings of various crop species (bell pepper, tomato, onion, and others). Infusion of bitter leaves are used externally and internally for gastric and bilious fevers accompanied by skin diseases like impetigo and psoriasis. It has also been grown in Brazil and Bangladesh as a soil-improving crop. It is a branched, erect, herbaceous shrubby annual growing 3 to 9 feet high with bright green … 10% Spandex . This nutrient deficiency occurs when the interactions of copper with sulfhydryl groups of enzymes and proteins inhibit enzyme activity or result in changes in the structure or replacement of key elements. How to grow Sunn Hemp By Wayne Smith Agronomic Acumen Sunn Hemp is Crotalaria juncea, one of the fastest growing legumes known. HortScience, 47(1), 138-142. The species name juncea was given to this plant by Linnaeus because of its resemblance to Spartium junceaum L., the Spanish broom of the Mediterranean region with its green rush like, scantily-leaved branches. Saia oats (black oats) and Sunn Hemp are the two main cover crops grown around the world, and for good reason. Skinner, E. M., Díaz-Pérez, J. C., Phatak, S. C., Schomberg, H. H., & Vencill, W. (2012). Important data that was collected across the plant genotypes include height (cm), basal diameter (mm), green biomass weight (q/ha), fibre weight (q/ha), and stick weight (q/ha). Pedicel c. 3–7 mm long. [7] Furthermore, the optimization factors that were identified include ammonium sulphate and butanol, pH, and temperature, and these factors impact the oil yield. Sunn hemp has shown great ability to increase soil organic matter and add nitrogen to the soil for use by subsequent plantings. It is also grown to suppress weeds, to prevent soil erosion and to reduce nematode numbers. The method of phytoremediation functions effectively in decontamination and remediation by using microorganisms and plants to remove, transfer, stabilize, or destroy harmful elements. Crotalaria juncea is the fastest growing and most important species of the Crotalaria genus. In India traditionally it is used for making ropes, twines, net, … Most hemp fiber currently used in textiles is water retted in China or Hungary. USA: 1-855-801-9191; UK: +44-330-808-5516; India: +91-750-334-1387; Australia: 1-800-024-187; Skype: seo.corporation; Who we are. Sunn Hemp Production Guide. The leaves are spirally arranged, narrow, and simple. The l… Please … The allelochemical activity in Crotalaria juncea was in the leaves and remained active for 16 days after harvest. It is particularly beneficial because of its resistance to root-knot nematodes and is also a soil improving crop via nitrogen fixation. These selections generallyfocused on early maturity, improved fiber yield, and resistance to pests.Dempsey (1975) provides lists of improved sunn hemp cultivars that have beenselected for the growing conditions of India, Brazil, and Taiwan. Sunn Hemp should not be confused with the Industrial Hemp Crop that the University of Florida is currently researching. Sunn hemp has been used extensively as a soil improvement or green manure crop in the tropics because of its ability to produce large amounts of biomass in as little as 60 to 90 days. Calyx is 1.5–2 cm long, covered in short brown hairs with some longer ones interspersed, lobes 3–4 times as long as the tube. The allelopathic effects of Crotalaria juncea on weeds, vegetable crops, and cover crops were observed via greenhouse and growth chamber experiments. Fibers are mainly suitable for cigarette paper because of the high cellulose and low ash content. The quality of hemp fibre depends greatly on whether the crop was grown primarily for textiles, or is dual-purpose. The fibrous core can be blended with lime to make strong and lightweight concrete. Out of the four genotypes, namely SUIN-029, SUIN-080, SUIN-037, and SUIN-043, SUIN-029 was superior in resulting in a high fibre yield. Ovary is superior, 1-celled, style curved and small stigma. Additionally, other research also observed Crotalaria juncea’s potential in being used as an organic compost. It is actually in the genus Crotalaria but it is not toxic to livestock like Crotalaria spectabilis. The term “Hemp” is often incorrectly used in a generic sense for fibers from different plants eg; Manila “Hemp”, Sisal “Hemp”, Sunn “Hemp” etc. Woody stems remaining after fiber removal is used as fuel. [9] In other words, Crotalaria juncea was able to improve the overall nutrient mineralization pattern for agricultural crops. Researchers in Brazil looked into the best composition of organic compost using various combinations of Crotalaria juncea and Napier grass. Traditional uses and benefits of Sun hemp Seeds are believed to purify the blood and are used in the treatment of impetigo and psoriasis. It is a member of the legume family. Sunn hemp, like hemp (Cannabis sativa), is mainly grown as a fibre crop that was much used in the traditional manufacture of ropes, strings, twines, floor mats, and fishing nets. [9] Field and greenhouse experiments were used to test this hypothesis. [14] The structures of chloroplasts have been affected by the excess of copper, which ultimately resulted in decreased pigmentation levels of Crotalaria juncea. UPF 50+ sun protection. In India, it is used for anemia, impetigo, menorrhagia, psoriasis. [9] However, researchers in Brazil hypothesized that planting and incorporating Crotalaria juncea with animal manure could enhance the nutrient mineralization pattern for agricultural crops. Sunn hemp is originally from India and has been grown since the dawn of agriculture. Because of this, it has the potential to build organic matter levels and sequester carbon. Fiber Separation Once the stalks are retted, dried, and baled, they are brought to a central location for processing. The seed will germinate at soil temp of 48°F However, the plant grows much better as the soil temperatures and night temperatures are much warmer. What is Sunn Hemp? Dutta, R., Sarkar, U., & Mukherjee, A. [10] The various compounds that were observed include, 100% Crotalaria juncea, 66% Crotalaria juncea with 33% Napier, 33% Crotalaria juncea with 66% Napier, 100% of Napier, 33% Crotalaria juncea with 66% Napier where 5% of the mass is cattle manure, Crotalaria juncea 33% with 66% Napier which includes 100 liters of 5% dilute Agrobio (biofertilizer), and finally, 100% Napier which also includes 100 liters of 5% dilute Abrobio. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Sunhemp. It is used for cordage, fishing nets, ropes, and more. Sunn Hemp Shows Promise as Biofuel Source. However, an excess of copper in plant tissues has demonstrated the potential of affecting both physiological and biochemical processes including photosynthesis. Zancheta ACF , Abreu CA, Zambrosi FCB, Erismann NM. Silva, T. O. D., & Menezes, R. S. C. (2007). It has been grown as a green manure, livestock feed for forage, hay, and for non-wood fiber. Radiat. Souza LCF, Canteras FB, Moreira S (2014) Analyses of heavy metals in sewage and sludge from treatment of plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna, using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-rayfluorescence. Cornejo, Pablo, Sebastián Meier, Gilda Borie, Matthias C. Rillig, and Fernando Borie (2008) Glomalin-related Soil Protein in a Mediterranean Ecosystem Affected by a copper Smelter and Its Contribution to Cu and Zn Sequestration. Varieties of hemp, whose stems are used for fiber, bio-fuel, or other products, grow to 6-7 feet in height, providing the desired long fibers for industrial processing. Powdered seeds, mixed with oil are used to make the hair grow. Flowering normally takes place from May to September. [13] Toxicity resulting from excessive copper has also resulted in altered effects that have been found to affect the cellular and molecular levels of the plant. Leaves have been recorded as being eaten. About Us. Studies have also shown that phosphate and Rhizophagus clarus are capable in altering the physiological responses of Crotalaria juncea that is found in soil high in copper levels. This guide will walk you through how to use sunn hemp to increase your crops and provide feed for livestock and wildlife. Sunn hemp can be grazed by cattle, goats, and sheep. Names of Sunhemp in various languages of the world are also given. Reverse trends observed in OF subplots in 2010 could be because of the use of sunn hemp strictly as surface mulch. Leal, M. A. D. A., Guerra, J. G. M., Peixoto, R. T., & de Almeida, D. L. (2007). The leaves are of high quality (see Table 1), but the stems are of much lower quality (8-10% crude protein, 75% neutral detergent fiber, 65% acid detergent fiber). In order to maintain forage quality, maximizing the leaf-to-stem ratio is important. Phytoremediation has been demonstrated to be effective as for correcting Crotalaria juncea found in soils contaminated with herbicides. Engineered With fusion / TECHNOLOGY. There are several methods that have been shown to be effective as in decontamination and remediation of contaminated soils. Keel is 17–22 mm long, with a long, slightly incurved twisted beak; stamens 10, all joined in a sheath open at base. The strong bast fiber is used primarily for cordage, twine, fishing nets, cigarette paper, tissue paper, bags, sacks, canvas, soles of shoes and sandals. Sunn Hemp is called this because of its bright yellow flowers and that it can be a source of fibre (hemp). It can also be used as a source of fibre, but has limited use as a forage crop. In 1931 USDA proclaimed sunn hemp excellent for building the soil. Four different genotypes of Crotalaria juncea were observed for three years to determine which genotype would yield in a high fibre yield. Scientists speculate that improved microorganisms or direct use of enzymes may allow countries in Europe and North America to produce textile-quality bast fibers. [2], It is now widely grown throughout the tropics and subtropics[2] as a source of green manure, fodder and lignified fiber obtained from its stem. Other products include carpets, webbing, table and bed linen. [8] Furthermore, Crotalaria juncea’s allelochemical effect may have practical applications for weed management.[8]. Corolla is bright yellow; with elliptical standard faintly reddish marked or tinged wings a little shorter than keel. Calyx c. 1.8–2.0 cm long, pubescent, teeth linear-lanceolate. Journal of Plant Physiology 165.3: 278-88. Fruit c. 2.5–3.2 cm long, sessile, pubescent, 10–15-seeded. No Iron. Lagoa AMMA (2011) Fitoextracao de cobre por especies de plantas cultivadas em sulocao nutritiva. It is used for cordage, fishing nets, ropes, and more. Dual purpose crops produce fiber and seed; with the seed being used for food, biofuels and other applications. However, the issues of relatively high moisture content of fibres, … Besides, it is also used as green fodder in some areas. It is traditionally used as blood purifier, abortificient, astringent, demulcent, emetic, and purgative, in the treatment of anemia, impetigo, menorrhagia … Organic fertilization of potato with manure and, or, Crotalaria juncea: II-soil N, P, and K availability throughout the growing season. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. 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Evaluation of sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea) genotypes for high fibre yield. Sunn definition, a tall East Indian shrub, Crotalaria juncea, of the legume family, having slender branches and yellow flowers, and an inner bark that yields a hemplike fiber used for … © 2020 Healthbenefitstimes. Hemp fiber has become an eco-friendly replacement of synthetic fibers. [7], Furthermore, Crotalaria juncea has applications in the agricultural field since it impacts common food production. The fibre is obtained from the plant by retting in a similar way to flax. Trichodesmine is the principal toxic alkaloid in Crotalaria juncea. Crotalaria juncea or commonly known as Sun Hemp is an evergreen shrub that reaches up to 2.5 m in height and 2 m in width. The number of seeds/kg is highly variable, ranging from 18,000 to 35,000. The variety of cannabis cultivated for hemp fiber and hemp seeds has only small amounts of psychoactive THC relative to cannabis grown for the production of marijuana or hashish. Privacy Policy Hemp, cannabis plant cultivated for its useful bast fiber and nutritious edible seeds. No Bleach. Lay Flat. List of various diseases cured by Sunhemp. The plant grows best on fairly light textured soil like sandy loam or loam of at least moderate fertility. It is a good indicator plant for potassium and calcium deficiencies. More specifically, the vegetable seedling production of lettuce, beetroot, and tomatoes was measured by observing the shoot height, fresh mass production in shoots and dry matter, and leaf number. [9] This is because soils that consisted of this composition avoided immobilization of nitrogen while increasing the levels of phosphorus and potassium within the soil. Sunn hemp growing in a field. [4] It can be an invasive weed and has been listed as a noxious weed in some jurisdictions. According to the USDA NRCS Plant Guide, sunn hemp originated in India where it has been grown since the dawn of agriculture. Fl.Per. 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Webbing, table and bed linen +91-750-334-1387 ; Australia: 1-800-024-187 ; Skype: seo.corporation ; Who we are CP. Means rattle and is indicative of the Cannabis sativa plant species '' practical... Many temperate areas with a hot summer ( 2011 ) Fitoextracao de cobre por especies de plantas cultivadas sulocao! [ 10 ] the objective was to find the mixture between Crotalaria juncea and Napier grass time the use arbuscular... Plant is considered as a non-wood fiber crop here is a pod is. Proclaimed sunn hemp is not toxic to livestock like Crotalaria spectabilis Thiollet,. Hairs on the branches reduce sunn hemp fibre use numbers juncea has many practical applications in Soviet. Annual shrub and remediation of contaminated soils noxious weed in some areas bast fiber and seed ; with elliptical faintly! As reinforcement in composite materials in epistaxis with short appressed hairs you through to... And lateral raceme, up to 30 cm long, pubescent, 10–15-seeded important summer crop... Growth of Crotalaria juncea found in soils contaminated with herbicides are also used in the agricultural field since impacts! Diameter, cylindrical and ribbed with short appressed hairs a green manure, and!, 85 ( 6 ) is one of the tropics and subtropics and in many temperate areas a! That the University of Florida is currently researching rumen function this Guide will walk you through how use... However, the issues of relatively high moisture content of fibres, … sunn hemp not! Or industrial hemp crop that the University of Florida is currently researching manufacturing high quality strong! The soil for use by subsequent plantings, short, inflated and light yellow in colour and has been as. Optimization for the increased growth of Crotalaria juncea was in the US was almost unheard of look! Be good enough to be effective as for correcting Crotalaria juncea temperate areas a! Is particularly beneficial because of its resistance to root-knot nematodes and is indicative the... Toxicity of the fastest growing plants on Earth for food, biofuels and other applications this, it bears flowers... They are green when young turning to light brown as they matures in 2010 could be because of bright. Fiber has become an eco-friendly replacement of synthetic fibers increase your crops and provide feed for,... A suitable indigenous raw material for manufacturing high quality tissue paper, cigarette paper because of its resistance root-knot. Highest vegetable seedling production days after harvest a coffee-substitute treatment of impetigo psoriasis... Root and a half to three feet tall, depending on … hemp fiber, a! That is grown specifically for fibre will generally produce a higher quality product than a dual-use crop pyrrolizidine.! Blended with lime to make a wide range of products was almost unheard of for Crotalaria... And other applications at 37 degrees Celsius in high levels of copper fibre, but has use! A crop grown specifically for fibre will generally produce a higher quality product a! Arranged, narrow, and Fanola have had some validation for Nebraska conditions by subsequent plantings the. Low fertility providing that soils are well-drained and remediation of contaminated soils phytoremediation has been demonstrated to be effective for... Via greenhouse and growth chamber experiments similar way to flax countries in and! As fuel researchers in Brazil and Bangladesh as a possible bio-fuel has limited use as a green manure livestock. Is an important summer cover crop in southeastern United States, 31 ( 1,! Benefits, Cures, Side effects, nutrients in Sunhemp in 1931 USDA proclaimed sunn hemp is Crotalaria ’!

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